Although all Kilimanjaro climbers may experience mild altitude sickness to some degree, in extreme cases, it can develop into more severe forms, which include HAPE (high altitude pulmonary oedema) and HACE (high-altitude cerebral oedema).
HAPE is excess fluid on the lungs, and if altitude sickness has progressed to this stage, a person may experience shortness of breath while they are resting, coupled with fever and coughing.
Another severe form of altitude sickness is HACE, which is fluid on the brain. Symptoms of HACE include clumsiness, confusion and stumbling.
Sometimes a person with severe altitude sickness may have both HAPE and HACE.
A person suffering from severe altitude sickness may also have a bluish, grey or pale skin tone. In all such cases, immediate descent and emergency treatment is imperative.